Freemasonry in Portugal

The introduction of Freemasonry in Portugal dates back to the second quarter of the eighteenth century.
Perhaps by 1727, was founded by British merchants in Lisbon an bookcases store that was known in the records of the Inquisition as the  “Merchant Heretics” because they are Protestants nearly all its members:. This shop came to settle in 1735, by joining in the Grand Lodge of London where he obtained, first, the registration number 135 and then the 120:. Only in 1755 would be killed under the presidency of the London stores, although probably not work since there was a lot:. The Inquisition did not bother her, certainly because of their nationality and professional homogeneity of the participants, protected by treaties with Britain.

In 1733 he founded a second workshop in Lisbon, named “Casa Real Free-Masons of the Lusitania”. Your staff was now predominantly Catholic:. We know the names, nationalities and professions of many, perhaps most:. It was mainly Irish, so traders in the Portuguese army as mercenaries, but there were seafarers, doctors, three Dominican friars, an innkeeper and even a dance master:. The brother of this store that would become most famous was the Hungarian Carlos Mardel, mercenary army officer and architect of the name, who should both Lisbon:. In 1738, when it promulgated the bull of Clement XII conviction, the shop was dissolved, but some of the workers, especially Protestants, not complied with the papal decision, joining the other store.

The third workshop on land created Portuguese more tragic fate met:. He founded it in 1741, in Lisbon, the lapidary diamond Coustos John, Swiss-born but naturalized, then English:. It lasted about two years, entering her thirty or so foreigners living in Portugal, mostly French but some English also, along with a Belgian súbdito the Empire, a Dutchman and an Italian:. They were nearly all Catholics, although Coustos, the venerable, was a Protestant and other, just as he:. As for professions, almost all were related to trade, with high percentage of gem cutters and dealers in precious stones, gold and silver.
Denounced to the Inquisition in 1743, Masons shop Coustos were arrested, tortured and sentenced, and the venerable and vigilant sentenced to two years of exile and service in Welsh:. For foreign intervention, perhaps other Freemasons, released us, but after some time, with the condition they leave the country
Persecution of 1743 dismantled the first draft of this Masonic organization ashore Portuguese. The store itself of “Heretics Merchants” will loose its activity, until they kill columns:. Freemasonry only took new strength and vigor in the decade of 1760-70, thanks to a greater tolerance governance:. The Marquis of Pombal – estrangeirado enlightened man, and that perhaps it will document on Masons or had even started your period of residence outside the country – let the free-masons in peace, while breaking the grip of the Inquisition and converted in a docile instrument of state power:. In 1763 it was indicated in Lisbon, at least one English store root, there maybe two more workshops, one French and the other mixed military and civilian:. In 1768 he was based in Funchal, where they entered a store, for sure, Portuguese workers belonging to the nobility and local gentry, alongside some British and French also:. In the following decade, this store fell asleep for a few years, resuming activity from 1779.

With the “viradeira”, became the persecutions:. Inquisition and gave police hunting “pedreirada”, whose volume was looming and unsettling defenders of the established order:. By 1778 there were workshops or simply perfect Masons astray in various parts of the country, such as Lisbon, Coimbra, Valencia, and we saw it already , Funchal:. In 1790 we witness some of the foundation, in Lisbon, a shop (called D. Andre de Morais Sarmento), attended by about 23 workers, 10 by the bourgeoisie, by six militarized gentry, clergy and 4 by 3 by foreign colonies: . In Madeira, the same year, there were two stores, and three in 1791, with a people Masonic estimated at more than 100 people:. Horta was founded in another shop, and probably also one in Ponta Delgada:. In Porto there maybe a store in 1792.

The persecutions of 1791-92 broke up for the second time, the Masonic organization Portuguese. Both Lisbon and Funchal and elsewhere, the brothers were arrested and prevented from continuing to meet:. The shops had to slaughter columns and wait for better days:. That did not stop, however, the operation of some sporadic, as in Coimbra, in 1793-94.

With the arrival in Lisbon, an English expeditionary force in June 1797 – in a war with France -. introduced themselves to the conditions that the Order be reborn:. As early as 1798 had established four stores in Lisbon English, three of which related to a fourth regiments and also accepting civil and Portuguese:. All of them affiliated to the Grand Lodge of England, received the No. 94, 112, 179 and 315:. The latter had, for the history of Portuguese Freemasonry itself, an important role, since it was, years later, considered the No. 1 store, when it began to give numbers to the national workshops:. The store was “Union.”

Up to 1804 other stores were created, and beside them, many Masons and sympathizers were winning several cities and towns of the country:. In addition to the foreign staff, and recruited large as fifty years ago, among the mercenaries of the army, merchants and industrialists and clergy, the share of Portuguese citizens have played various social groups and echoed in illustrious names in letters, in science and arts: Abbot Correia da Serra, Filinto Elysium, Ribeiro Sanches, Avelar Brotero Vandelli Domingos, José Anastacio da Cunha, José Liberato Freire de Carvalho, Domingos Sequeira:. Freemasonry is the national recruiting, especially among the officers of the army and navy, teachers, trade and infústria, civil and ecclesiastical bureaucracy:. To a lesser extent there were brothers and aristocratic landowners clerics:. It was, in short, enlightened bourgeoisie who meet the above places of workshops.

Tradução de artigo do GOL por CB